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GLOSSARY

Glossary

Last revised June 5, 2010.

Introduction
Below is a glossary of terms used on Transtelligent.com.
Accessibility
Accessibility is a general term used to describe the "ability to use" a product, device, service, or environment by as many people as possible regardless of the person's ability or disability.
Apache Web Server
Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as simply Apache, is web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009, it became the first web server software to surpass the 100 million web site milestone. Apache was the first viable alternative to the Netscape's web server, and has since evolved to rival other Unix-based web servers in terms of functionality and performance. The majority of web servers using Apache run a Unix-like operating system, although Apache also runs on Microsoft Windows-based operating systems.
Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. The application is available for a wide variety of operating systems, including Unix, GNU, FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Novell NetWare, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, OS/2, TPF, and eComStation. Released under the Apache License, Apache is characterized as open source software.
Since April 1996, Apache has been the most popular HTTP server software in use. As of February 2010, Apache served over 54.46% of all websites and over 66% of the million busiest.
Cascading StyleSheets (CSS)
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document.
CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for tableless web design). CSS can also allow the same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices.
Document Object Model (DOM)
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents. Aspects of the DOM (such as its "Elements") may be addressed and manipulated within the syntax of the programming language in use, which is frequently JavaScript.
Findability
Findability is the ability of users to identify an appropriate website and navigate the pages of the site to discover and retrieve relevant information resources. Put simply, you can't use what you can't find.
Flash
Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to Web pages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements and games. More recently, it has been positioned as a tool for the so-called "Rich Internet Application" ("RIA").
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes, and other items. It allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of "tags" surrounded by angle brackets within the web page content. It can load scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpages. HTML can also be used to include Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material.
HTML5
HTML5 is being developed as the next major revision of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the core markup language of the World Wide Web. HTML5 is the proposed next standard for HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 and DOM Level 2 HTML. It aims to reduce the need for proprietary plug-in-based rich internet application (RIA) technologies such as Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight.
JavaScript
JavaScript is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript, implemented as part of a web browser, providing enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites. The primary use of JavaScript is to write functions that are embedded in or included from HTML pages and interact with the Document Object Model (DOM) of the page. Some simple examples of this usage are: opening or popping up a new window, validation of web form input values to make sure that they will be accepted before they are submitted to the server, changing images as the mouse cursor moves over them. Because JavaScript code can run locally in a user's browser (rather than on a remote server) it can respond to user actions quickly, making an application feel more responsive. Furthermore, JavaScript code can detect user actions which HTML alone cannot, such as individual keystrokes.
Linux
Linux is a generic term referring to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems that use the Linux kernel. Their development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.
Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, and wristwatches to mainframes and supercomputers. Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers; a 2008 estimate suggests that 60% of all web servers run Linux.
MySQL
MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is officially pronounced ("My S-Q-L"), but is often pronounced ("My Sequel").
The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL is owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Sun Microsystems, a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation.
Open-Source
Open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology. Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code. Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. Subsequently, a new, three-word phrase "open source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created.
The open source model includes the concept of concurrent yet different agendas and differing approaches in production, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial software companies. A main principle and practice of open source software development is peer production by bartering and collaboration, with the end-product, source-material, "blueprints" and documentation available at no cost to the public. This is increasingly being applied in other fields of endeavor, such as biotechnology.
PHP
PHP is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by web server software with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. As a general-purpose programming language, PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web server software and as standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms.
Over 20 million Internet domains have web services hosted on servers with PHP installed and mod_php is consistently recorded as the most popular Apache HTTP Server module. Significant websites are written in PHP including the user-facing portion of Facebook, Wikipedia (MediaWiki), Yahoo!, Digg, Joomla, eZ Publish, WordPress, YouTube, Drupal, Tagged, and Moodle.
Search-Engine Optimization (SEO)
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a web site or a web page (such as a blog) from search engines via "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results as opposed to other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) which may deal with paid inclusion. The theory is that the earlier (or higher) a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search and industry-specific vertical search engines. This gives a web site web presence.
As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work and what people search for. Optimizing a website primarily involves editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.
Transtelligent
Transtelligent Corporation is a global provider of information technology solutions for organizations of all sizes.
XHTML
XHTML 1.0 is "a reformulation of the three HTML 4 document types as applications of XML 1.0". The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) also continues to maintain the HTML 4.01 Recommendation and the specifications for HTML5 and XHTML5 are being actively developed. In the current XHTML 1.0 Recommendation document, as published and revised to August 2002, the W3C commented that, "The XHTML family is the next step in the evolution of the Internet. By migrating to XHTML today, content developers can enter the XML world with all of its attendant benefits, while still remaining confident in their content's backward and future compatibility."
However, in 2004, the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) formed, independently of the W3C, to work on advancing ordinary HTML not based on XHTML. Most major browser vendors were unwilling to implement the features in new W3C XHTML drafts, and felt that they didn't serve the needs of modern web development. The WHATWG eventually began working on a standard that supported both XML and non-XML serializations, HTML 5, in parallel to W3C standards such as XHTML 2. In 2007, the W3C's HTML working group voted to officially recognize HTML 5 and work on it as the next-generated HTML standard. In 2009, the W3C allowed the XHTML 2 Working Group's charter to expire, acknowledging that HTML 5 would be the sole next-generation HTML standard, including both XML and non-XML serializations.

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